About Louis

Louis V. Lombardo

Work History Highlights

2007 – Present

About Louis Lombardo
Work History Highlights

Principal, Louis V. Lombardo, LLC

Auto Safety Researcher, Advocate, and Publisher of Care For Crash Victims Reports.


End Vehicle
Violence. We currently are at a time when we have more safety
technologies available than ever before in the history of humankind.
We now have the ability to achieve zero deaths and serious injuries
in, or by, new vehicles in a decade. And we are:

  • About to record our 4 millionth
    death due to vehicle violence in the U.S.A.

  • Losing 100 Americans to vehicle
    violence every average day in the US.A.

  • Experiencing 400 Americans
    suffering serious vehicle injuries per day,

  • Paying losses valued by NHTSA at
    $2 Billion per day in the U.S.A.

We need to build the political will to
end vehicle violence in America. We can set a national Vision Zero
Goal. In a decade we can put humans on the road and bring them back
alive by ending vehicle violence – always, forevermore, for


Research, consult,
write, and publish Monthly Reports and Daily Blog (2013 – 2016) on
needs and measures for auto safety to prevent vehicle violence.
Available at https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/monthly-reports/


Published Trends of
Crash Deaths In Hospital and Pre Hospital years 1978 – 2013, By
State available at

and published Crash Deaths Map Tools Providing Decade of Death Data
by Congressional District available at


Created and published Crash Death Clocks and Loss Meters

Available at


Co-author of Time
and Place of Death from Automobile Crashes: Research Endpoint
Implications, Journal of Trauma, May 2016. Available

Contributor to
Citizen Petition for a national Vision Zero Goal by the Karth Family
that obtained 20,000 signatures in 2016. See

Contributor to book
“Car Safety Wars” by Michael R. Lemov, 2015. Review at

Vision Zero article
2015 about Emergency Response quotes my views:


Times article on January 26, 2014 quoted me on the Revolving Door
problem at NHTSA.

National Catholic Reporter article by Colman McCarthy describes my
work at


Vision Zero article
2014 Life Lessons, See

Crash Testing
Technology International carries my Op Ed Sept. 2012 Safety Sells


Co-author “A
Strange Indifference to Highway Carnage” published by FairWarning,

Crash Testing
Technology International carried my Op Ed Sept. 2011 Creating

Vision Zero Magazine,
January 2010 issue, honored me with its Safety Legend article
describing my work.

Co-author “The
Importance of Vehicle Rollover as a Field Triage Criterion” Journal
of Trauma, August 2009.

1978 – 2007

Physical Scientist,
(Retired from NHTSA January, 2007)

National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

Office of Advanced
Safety Research,

Technologies Research Division,

Last Position:
Program Manager,

Intersection Collision Avoidance System (CICAS-V)

Note: All results
cited herein were not solely my doing, but were possible only with
the support of my wife, Rita, and many contributions of others in
government, industry, academe, the public interest community and the

Co-author of Paper:
CICAS V Research on Comprehensive Costs of Intersection Crashes, for
ESV 2007 Conference. This work was performed while serving as
Technical Manager for the Cooperative Intersection Collision
Avoidance Systems-Violations (CICAS V) Program (2006).

See https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ESV-2007-on-Cost-of-Intersection-Crashes.pdf

Co-author of NHTSA
Technical Report: Analysis of Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes and
Fatalities at Intersections, 1997 to 2004, DOT HS 810 682, February
2007 See http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810682.PDF

Co-author of Paper:
A Spatial Analysis of Geocoded FARS Data to Identify Intersections
with Multiple Occurrences of Fatal Crashes, Paper # 1885,
Proceedings, 13th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems and
Services, London, UK, 8-12th October, 2006.

This work made clear the need and feasibility for a more
comprehensive analysis of Fatal Intersection Crashes. As a result,
NHTSA, NCSA began to work on the intersection safety problem and
developed the Geocoded Intersection Safety Analysis Tool (GISAT) that
provided aerial images (where available from Google Earth and Local
Live) for each of ~30,000 geocoded fatal intersection crash locations
for the years 2001-2004. This then became a subset of the Highway
Infrastructure Safety Analysis Tool (HISAT) that adds the aerial
images of all roadway locations, as available, for each of ~130,000
geocoded fatal crash locations in FARS 2001 – 2004. These tools
permit a wide variety of safety analyses to be performed by safety
researchers in the future.

Co-author of
Presentation “Using Ortho-imagery in the Analysis and
Identification of Intersections with Multiple Fatal Crashes,”
2006 Annual Traffic Records Forum, Aug 3, 2006

Co-Author of
“Assessment of Air Medical Coverage Using the Atlas and Database of
Air Medical Services and Correlations With Reduced Highway Fatality
Rates”, Air Medical Journal, July-August, 2005, Available at

National Academy of
Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Reports “Hospital-Based
Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point” and “Emergency
Medical Services: At the Crossroads” (published June 2006) cited
our coauthored works on Automatic Crash Notification, URGENCY
software, and Air Medical Services See



Presenter at 2006 SAE
Government/Industry Conference “Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System (CICAS-V) to Avoid Violations at Stop Signs & Signals.”

Acknowledged for my
contributions to the 1st through 13th editions
of the Atlas & Database of Air Medical Services (ADAMS) available
at http://www.adamsairmed.org/pubs/ADAMS_Intro.pdf

Co-editor, NHTSA
CIREN Report: “Consequences and Costs of Lower-Extremity Injuries,” DOT HS 809 871, June 2005

Co-author of
“Assessment of Air Medical Coverage Using the Atlas and Database
of Air medical Services (ADAMS) With Correlations with Reduced
Highway Fatality Rates”, Air Medical Journal, July-August, 2005.


Co-author “New
Tools to Reduce Deaths and Disabilities by Improving Emergency Care:
URGENCY Software, Occult Injury Warnings, and Air Medical Services
Database” NHTSA ESV Proceedings, 2005, DOT HS 809 825. See

This paper, published by NHTSA, described our research findings that
the Nation needed a “Reduction in Average Times for Scene
Arrival in Rural Fatal Crashes of 8 minutes” to meet a medical
benchmark of providing EMS care within 10 minutes of the crash. The
Congress subsequently enacted SAFETEA-LU, signed into law (P.L.
109-59) on August 10, 2005, that provides for research and
development on:

“Sec. 5306.
(b) (3) (C)(i) improving incident management response, particularly
in rural areas, so that rural emergency response times are reduced by
an average of 10 minutes; and

(ii) improving
communication between emergency care providers and trauma centers;”

In January 2009 BMW
became the first automaker to use URGENCY software to improve care
for crash victims. See following info:

From BMW: A video
description of the new BMW system and information on its potential is
at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A30fi8-muk4

Acknowledged for my
contributions to paper “Access to Trauma Centers in the United
States,” JAMA, June 2005 available at

Contributor to
development of the Occult Injury Database.

Co-author “Atlas
and Database of Air Medical Services ADAMS): A Timely Safety and
Security Link” 2004 Available at

Conceived and
directed the development of the Atlas & Database of Air Medical
Services (ADAMS). ADAMS Project recognized with 2 National Awards by
the American Association of Association Executives (ASAE) – the
“Associations Advancing America” Award and the ASAE
“Summit” Award in 2004. See


Acknowledged for my
contributions to “Change in Velocity & Energy Dissipation on
Impact in Motor Vehicle Crashes as a Function of the Direction of
Crash: Key factors in the Production of Thoracic Aortic Injuries,
Their Pattern of Associated Injuries and Patient Survival,”
Journal of Trauma, Oct. 2004, pp. 760-778.

Acknowledged for my
contributions to “Automatic Crash Notification and the URGENCY
Algorithm: Its History, Value and Use,” Topics in Emergency
Medicine, April-June 2004

Co-author “Reducing
Highway Deaths & Disabilities with Automatic Wireless
Transmission of Serious Injury Probability Ratings from Vehicles in
Crashes to EMS”, NHTSA 18th ESV Proceedings, 2003, paper #406
Available at:


Co-author “Software
to Predict Occupant Forces in Real World Crashes – Phase I
Results,” NHTSA Proceedings, 31st International Workshop on
Injury Biomechanics Research, Oct. 2003.

Editor of two NHTSA
CIREN Program Reports, 2001 and 2002 available at

The NHTSA CIREN Program Report 2002, DOT HS 809 564

The NHTSA CIREN Program Report 2001, DOT HS 809 377

Co-edited a third
report on Lower Extremity Injuries available at

Co-author and
Presenter “CIREN Overview of SUVs & Safety,” Sept. 6,

Co-author of “Crash
Visualization Using Real-World Acceleration Data”. NHTSA ESV
Conference Proceedings, 2001. Available at https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/CrashVisualizationUsingReal-WorldAccelerationData.pdf,

Contributor to
“Development and Validation of the Urgency Algorithm to Predict
Compelling Injuries” NHTSA 17th ESV Conference Proceedings,
2001. Available at

Performed, and
presented, analyses of the relationships of weather, crash deaths,
injuries, and costs for the U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA,
2000-2001. See FCM-R18-2002, p.1-3 at


Subsequently these analyses resulted in a study by the National
Academy of Sciences that recommended multi-million dollar multi-year
funding of FHWA programs on weather and safety. See


Administered $15
million grant for the establishment of the Center for Transportation
Injury Research (CenTIR) at the Calspan-University at Buffalo
Research Center for multidisciplinary safety research, 1998-2006.

numerous safety research products and papers on care of crash

Contributor to
“Emerging Technology for Vehicular Safety and Emergency Response
to Roadway Crashes”, Surgical Clinics of North America, Dec.

Contributor to
paper: “Reducing Highway Deaths and Disabilities with Automatic
Wireless Transmission of Serious Injury Probability Ratings from
Crash Recorders to Emergency Medical Services Providers,” NTSB
Proceedings, 1999. Available at

Contributor to two
papers: “Automatic Crash Notification” and “Urgency
for a Safer America,” published in AirMed Journal in March 1998
and March 1999, respectively. See



The Congress, based in
part on this research, in October 1999 enacted the Wireless
Communications and Public Safety Act specifying 9-1-1 to be the
“universal emergency telephone number” and finding that
“emerging technologies can be a critical component…to reduce
emergency response times and provide appropriate care.” In 1999,
the FCC also issued rules for Enhanced 9-1-1 service to automatically
provide location information to emergency dispatchers.

Co-author of
“Injury Patterns Among Air Bag Equipped Vehicles,” The XVI
International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of
Vehicles. Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Paper no. 98-S1-O-06. June, 1998.
See  https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/98S1O06.pdf

Contributor to
“Relationships Between Crash Casualties and Crash Attributes”
SAE 970393


This paper was the
basis for the prototype of URGENCY software demonstrated and first
presented to the NHTSA Administrator and NHTSA senior management on
March 27, 1997. See  https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/assets/MartinezBriefing3-27-97.pdf

Coauthor “Air
Bag Induced Injury Mechanisms for Infants in Rear Facing Child
Restraints”, SAE 973296

Co-author of “Heart
Injuries Among Restrained Occupants in Frontal Crashes”, The
Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility Land Sea Air and Space
International (SAE) 1997 Technical Paper Series printed in Occupant
Protection and Injury Assessment in the Automotive Crash Environment
(SP-1231) SAE 970392, February, 1997.

Co-author of
“Challenges in Injury Measurement Technology for Testing of
Driver Air Bag Systems.”, The 15th ESV Conference.
Melbourne, Australia. Paper no. 96-S10-O-02. May 15, 1996.

Co-author of
“Injuries Sustained by Drivers in Air Bag Crashes.” The
15th ESV Conference. Melbourne, Australia. Paper no. 96-S10-O-01.
May 15, 1996.

Co-author of
“Injuries Sustained by Air Bag Protected Drivers.” (SAE)
1996 Technical Paper Series reprinted from Occupant Protection
Technologies for Frontal Impact: Current Needs and Expectations for
the 21st Century, (SP-1144) SAE 960660, February 1996.

Co-author of “Liver
Injuries Associated with 2-Point Belt Restraints in Frontal Crashes”,
Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39th Annual Proceedings of the
Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, 1995.

Co-author of
“Occult abdominal injuries to airbag-protected crash victims: a
challenge to trauma systems”, J Trauma. 1995 Apr; 38(4):502-8.

Co-author of “Chest
and Abdominal Injuries Suffered by Restrained Occupants.” The
Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility Land Sea Air and Space
International (SAE) 1995 Technical Paper Series reprinted from
Advances in Occupant Protection Technologies for the Mid-Nineties
(SP-1077) SAE 950657, February 1995.

Co-author of
“Airbag Protected Crash Victims – The Challenge of Identifying
Occult Injuries.” The Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility
Land Sea Air and Space International (SAE) 1994 Technical Paper
Series reprinted from In-Depth Accident Investigation: Trauma Team
Findings in Late Model Vehicle Collisions (SP 1042) SAE 940714,
February 1994.

Co-author of
“Injuries Sustained by Air Bag Occupants in Frontal Crashes”,
The 14th International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of
Vehicles, Paper no. 94-S4-O-18, 1994.

Planned, organized,
and directed, for the Secretary of Transportation, the national
Transportation Technology Fair that enabled all DOT modal
administrations to display their latest technologies on the National
Mall, and to recognize the scientific and engineering contributions
of DOT researchers, 1994.

Co-author of NHTSA
Research Note: “Detection of Internal Injuries in Drivers
protected by Air Bags”, 1993 and the subsequent SCENE Poster
nationally distributed by NHTSA to the EMS community in 1994. See pp.
69-83 at


Planned and
administered $8.5 million grant to Jackson Memorial Hospital, for
creation of the Ryder Trauma Center, establishment of the William
Lehman Injury Research Center, and for research on injuries to
restrained occupants in frontal crashes, 1991-1997.


This research was used
by NHTSA as the model for the creation of the NHTSA Crash Injury
Research and Engineering Network (CIREN). CIREN is a
multidisciplinary research program conducted at ten Level 1 trauma
centers on crashes, injuries, treatments, and outcomes of serious
injury crashes. See papers at “NHTSA Crash Injury Research and
Engineering Network,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, October,
1996; 28:450-451 and at https://www.careforcrashvictims.com/assets/CIREN3.pdf



Acknowledged for
contributions to the Cost of Injury Report to Congress by CDC &
NHTSA, 1989.


1985 – 86

Director, Information
Support, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)

Responsible for the
planning, organization, and conduct of the Protect Company Car
Drivers National Conference This conference of more than 200
executives brought prospective purchasers of automobile fleets to
Washington to meet with safety experts and representatives of
automobile manufacturers offering models with air bags.


Within 90 days of the
Conference end, purchase orders totaled 3,000 air bag equipped 1986
model year vehicles. The Conference won the Public Relations Society
of America (PRSA) highest honor the Silver Anvil Award.

1978 – 85

Physical Scientist,
Rulemaking, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

Prepared NHTSA
briefing materials for Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole’s
decision to reinstate regulations to require air bags.

Primary author and
editor of the NHTSA Report titled Automobile Occupant Crash
Protection, DOT HS 805 474, July 1980. See


The Supreme Court cited
this NHTSA report in its decision that ultimately required automatic
crash protection with air bags. See 463 U.S. 29, 103 S. Ct. 2856
(p.8). Subsequently, NHTSA published estimates that by 2014 an
estimated 42,292 lives were saved by frontal air bags and a growing
number of lives saved by side air bags (not yet estimated by NHTSA).

Co-author of NHTSA
Paper “Safety Consequences of the Shift to Small Cars in the
1980’s.” 1980

1972 – 1978

President, Public
Interest Campaign

Conducted technical
reviews of Federal programs in the fields of environmental public
health protection, energy policy, and consumer protection. See:

Consumer Fuel

Disclosure Act of 1975, CIS-NO: 76-S261-23

SOURCE: Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Senate,

DOC-TYPE: Hearing,

DATE: Oct. 29,

LENGTH: iii+146 p.
il., S

Y4.C73/2:94-53, CIS/Index


Advocacy resulted in
enactment of Title II – Octane Disclosure – of the Petroleum
Marketing Practices Act (P.L. 95-297) requiring the posting of
gasoline octane quality ratings on all gasoline pumps to reduce
consumer octane overbuying. Octane overbuying in the 1970s was
resulting, each day, in an economic waste of three million consumer
dollars, energy waste of one million gallons of gasoline, and air
pollution emissions of 400,000 pounds of lead.

Plaintiff in
Lombardo v. Handler, 397 F. Supp. 792 (D.D.C. 1975), seeking decision
requiring the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to comply with the
Federal Advisory Committee Act and the Freedom of Information Act to
disclose deliberations under the Clean Air Act. Also see testimony
before Congress at:

Clean Air Act

Oversight, CIS-NO: 73-H501-5, SOURCE: Committee on Interstate and
Foreign Commerce.
House, DOC-TYPE: Hearing,
DATE: Nov.

20, 1971, Jan.
26-28, Sept. 28, 1972,

LENGTH: vii+555 p.

Y4.In8/4:92-105, CIS/Index


NAS won ability to deny
access sought, but instituted increased openness and balance
provisions for all its future deliberations. Subsequently, years
later, after the Nixon Tapes were released, the information I had
been seeking became public. The Nixon tapes revealed conversations
in the White House with Henry Ford II in 1971 that the emission tests
were being rigged (I was right). The EPA, the Courts, and the NAS
were wrong and the American people were forced to breathe air with
higher pollution levels for decades. See

newsletters titled Clean Air and Public Interest Reports 1972-1977
advocating lower emissions and lead free gasoline. Researched, and
organized scientific and public support for more stringent
regulations and requiring lead free gasoline (see “Get the Lead
Out,” The Progressive, August 1974, pp. 35-38.) See


Testified before
Congress, the Federal Energy Administration, FTC, DOT, EPA, and HUD.
See testimony before Congress at:

Inner City (25mb)
Environment and the Role of the Environmental Protection Agency,

CIS-NO: 72-S261-65,

SOURCE: Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Senate,

DOC-TYPE: Hearing,

DATE: Feb. 4, Apr.
7, May 8, 1972,

LENGTH: iv+340 p.

Y4.C73/2:92-75, CIS/Index


In 1972, the definition
of lead poisoning was a child blood lead level of 40 micrograms per
deciliter (Now it is down to 10 mcg/dl). By 1990 automotive lead
emissions were virtually eliminated, and by 2005, CDC found that:

children in the United States, between the ages of one and five years
old, who are included in the sample, the proportion with blood lead
levels above 10 micrograms per deciliter has dropped precipitously
over the past several years, so that in this most recent exposure
report, only 1.6 percent of children had elevated blood levels….this
is an astonishing public health achievement and I think really speaks
to the removal of lead from gasoline…”

As spokesman for
the National Clean Air Coalition, I held successful press conferences
in 10 cities on a cross-country demonstration of a low emission/high
fuel economy vehicle.

petitioned EPA Administrator Russell Train to appeal to I.R.S.
Commissioner Alexander for issuance of a ruling on October 4, 1974
permitting public interest groups to utilize court awarded fees
without jeopardizing their tax-exempt status. Petition and appeal

Successfully fought
for a restoration of an EPA budget ($400,000) for research on health
effects of automotive lead emissions.

lobbied EPA to fund the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on
Motor Vehicle Emissions for the continuation of its assessment of the
technological feasibility of meeting statutory auto emission
standards under the Clean Air Act.

Successfully urged
the American Public Health Association and the American Academy of
Pediatrics to file comments with EPA endorsing stringent regulations
limiting the lead content of gasoline.

Stimulated the City
of New York to improve its ambient air lead measurement procedures.

Influenced New York
City’s decision to deny an enforcement variance of its stringent
gasoline lead regulations in 1973.

Built a case, along
with others, for an EPA denial of suspension of the 1975 auto
emission standards; successfully in 1972, unsuccessfully in 1973 and


Scientist at Center
for Science in the Public Interest on auto emission control

Consultant to
Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). This was on the nation’s
first “citizen law suit” to require the EPA to tighten the
1975 motor vehicle emission standards.


Physical Scientist, EPA
and U.S. Public Health Service’s Air Pollution Control Program

Chairman of the EPA
Task Force on the Environmental Problems of the Urban Poor Editor and
author of EPA report entitled “Our Urban Environment and Our Most
Endangered People” that resulted in Congressional Hearings by Sen.
Philip Hart on lead in gasoline and other urban environmental
problems. See

Produced a series
of internal memos on the regulation of lead in gasoline. These
papers, commended by the Commissioner, established the public health
need, and the technical and economic feasibility of eliminating lead
from gasoline.


In 1970, served as
Technical Coordinator for the 1970 Clean Air Car Race. Designed and
organized the emission testing program in Boston (MIT), Ann Arbor,
and in Los Angeles (California Institute of Technology) for the
cross-country race. Documented a student demonstration of low
emission technology cited as the basis for the 1970 Clean Air Act
requirement for low pollution vehicles by 1975.


In 1969, I
identified and researched possible solutions to the problems of
illegal importation of automobiles without emission controls.
Resulted in 1970 amendment of the Clean Air Act closing a loophole in
the prohibition of such importations.

In 1968, performed
staff technical justification (demonstration of technical and
economic feasibility) for the first tightening of Federal automobile
emission standards promulgated in 1968 for applicability to 1970 and
later model year vehicles.

In 1967, served as
technical consultant for motor vehicle emission control to the Senate
Public Works Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution during hearings
on the 1967 Air Quality Act.

In 1967, served as
Research Associate member of HEW Secretary John Gardner’s Task Force
on Environmental Health Problems. Helped write the published report
to the Secretary A Strategy for a Livable Environment.


B.S. Physics,
University of Hartford, 1965,

Graduate Studies in
Public Administration, American University, 1970


Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE)

Washington Section SAE, 1992/93

Association for the
Advancement of Automotive Medicine

Association of Air
Medical Services

Reporters & Editors

Society for
Professional Journalists

Automotive Press Association


2007, received
Public Service Award of the Association of Air Medical Services
(AAMS) for my role in the development of the Atlas and Database of
Air Medical Services (ADAMS).

2004, Atlas &
Database of Air Medical Services (ADAMS) Project recognized with 2
national awards by the American Society of Association Executives
(ASAE) – the “Associations Advancing America” Award and
the ASAE’s highest honor, the “Summit” Award.

1994, received
Secretary of Transportation’s Award of Appreciation for organizing
and managing DOT’s TransFuture ’94 Technology Fair.

1986, Accepted on
behalf of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the
National Safety Council, and the National Association of Governors’
Highway Safety Representatives, the Silver Anvil Award, the highest
award of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), for my
management of the “Protect Car Company Drivers” Conference.

1980, received the
NHTSA Administrator’s Superior Achievement Award for my work in
creating the “Automobile Occupant Crash Protection Report”
that was later cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in its decision to
reinstate the Federal air bag regulations.